Hugo Moyano witness and the validity of Gramsci
By Sandra Russo
They began the '90s.
Latin America was very different. was full of Indians, yes, as now, although they were not on the agenda of any candidate for president and among its constituencies chances militants. In fact, militants were not used. the devotion of the "independent." The mainstream media and political leaders celebrated the overwhelming growth of this category of citizens. were in many cases former adherents of political parties had betrayed, but
many other citizens were in retreat, inorganic
citizens who were themselves mostly as something else: remember a bleak picture of Mario Vargas Llosa, a day after the first round in which the result is forced to ballottage to Alberto Fujimori. The man was walking along a beach with a niece. The photo showed the back stolen. He walked hunched over, head down, holding the bag that had been taken with a hand on his shoulder. The wind stirred the thick hair. The marks on the sand swept realized that the steps. This image released this week Peruvian newspapers gave us journalists that we had to send urgent shipments necessary equipment: Vargas Llosa was depressed. After to hear the outcome had left Lima
unknown destination. That
confirm your ballottage defeat in a month and a half later, with his quick departure from the country. Later, his renunciation of citizenship. I was in Lima in the two rounds of elections and that was the most curious political coverage that touched my life. had come to Peru with the certainty of victory of Vargas Llosa, like everyone else. The Sheraton, where the writer had placed her campaign bunker, made a 50 percent discount to accredited journalists , so I met with a colleague on the plane there we went to see as close to the spectacle of a victory. housed together also had to do with the tension of Lima in those years: guerrillas and paramilitaries were there, there were power outages all the time, there were attacks. When we reached the hotel we were impressed by the line of soldiers and guns hooded faces around him. Inside, in the press center of the candidate writer, everything was couch, exquisite and refined exoticism.
Just three days before the elections, Fujimori's name began to emerge among the handful of presidential candidates. Nobody knew who he was. the newspaper called me and asked me the same day send a note on it. We all felt the same way: international agencies had released the latest polls, and Fujimori, hitherto barely contained, bordered to Vargas Llosa. Fujimori that evening an impromptu press conference in a hotel room that was packed. There was plasticized credentials, such as the Sheraton, but
squares of cardboard cut to hand Fujimori's relatives were setting us on the bags with pins.
Fujimori was a mediocre engineer after the government made a disastrous, absolutely in tune with the times. Seen from a distance, one realizes that the IMF remained calmly those elections: economic policy, no candidate was troubling. One explanation for this unexpected result, or rather, about the poor performance of the surveys, was that Peru is a country very difficult to survey. Its indigenous population is often considered the questions of an interviewer's question as a white man. They tell white people what they imagine they want to hear. Therefore
polls gave him so well Vargas Llosa. The relationship
between indigenous peoples and the Peruvian writer, speaking an open letter to Vargas Llosa published these days the agency Urondo Paco. wrote it late last year, the Peruvian Indian Hugo Blanco, on the occasion of the Nobel, and has some notable paragraphs
, in which e
l Anti Indian director considers that award as "a blow over neoliberalism on indigenous peoples, and which can hardly be greatest enemy of them that person. " To locate Vargas Llosa in this context, White gives a few examples. One was what happened on June 5, 2009, Day World Environment when the government of Alan Garcia suppressed and massacred 200 Indians of the Amazon rainforest. There were strong protests in Lima, and the government had to back drawers two decrees claimed by the FTAA, by which, contrary to international law in force, opened the Amazon for new businesses.
"What was your attitude? Unlike most of the Peruvian people, wrote 'Pyrrhic Victory', stating that future governments will not dare Peruvians 'return to get their hands' in the Amazon to encourage private investment and development region 's economic (...). not stop there, considering
Amazonian people mentally retarded, to understand that the resistance may have been intended for them, said to have been instigated by Hugo Chavez and Evo Morales. "
The other example he gives Blanco Vargas Llosa to locate within this area is the Seminar Threats to Democracy in Latin America: Terrorism, Weakness of the rule of law and populism, "an event whose name disclaims describe their political orientation, developed in Bogotá between 19 and 22 November 2009. White quoted Vargas Llosa, who said
"The development and civilization are incompatible with certain social phenomena
and the main one is the collectivism (...). Socialism, Nazism and fascism are the phenomena of the past collectivist. Today it is expressed in Latin America in a very sinuous and magazines in robes that seem offensive but prestigious (...).
Indigenism of the 20s that seemed to have left behind is now what is behind phenomena like Mr. Evo Morales in Bolivia. The indigenous people in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia is causing a real political mess and social, and therefore must be fought " . Later, with a cynicism-proof blindex said: "The indigenous movement is a deeply disturbing element that appeals to base instincts, to the worst instincts of the individual, such as distrust towards the other, which is different ". It is interesting that White's letter indicates that a debate intellectual, political and literary, which should be addressed in the Book Fair, is the paradigm that is expressed in the work of Vargas Llosa and José María Arguedas. And talking of Peru should be mentioned here as a tribute to Manuel Scorza, which revisits is urgent. He answers Blanco Vargas Llosa:
"It is society that crushes you defend that celebrates individuality and individualism, which is the supreme selfishness. The best example of this is that large multinational companies are run by people who know that with the runaway greenhouse gas emissions are leading to extinction of the human species, but no longer care about their grandchildren and their children, but meet neoliberal the sacred commandment: to make as much money as possible in the shortest possible time "
. A Vargas Llosa, for his racism, it does say that indigenous people should abandon their traditions in pursuit of development , have answered many peoples and leaders, whose voices are silenced, but also intellectuals as José Saramago, who became a question whose echo still bouncing: "Somebody has been said that the indigenous movement is a danger to democracy I find incredible. How smart can get a head so monstrous a statement like that? " Source: Page 12